Writing a Bibliography: APA Format-standard formats and examples
Here are standard formats and examples for basic information that is bibliographic by the American Psychological Association (APA). For more information on the APA format, see http://www.apastyle.org.
Your directory of works cited has to start at the conclusion of the paper on a page that is new the centered title, References. Alphabetize the entries in your list because of the author’s last name, with the letter-by-letter system (ignore spaces and other punctuation.) Only the initials of the first and names that are middle given. If the author’s name is unknown, alphabetize by the title, ignoring any A, An, or The.
For dates, spell out of the names of months in the text of your paper, but abbreviate them within the variety of works cited, except for May, June, and July. Use either the style that is day-month-year22 July 1999) or the month-day-year style (July 22, 1999) and be consistent. Using the month-day-year style, be sure to add a comma following the year unless another punctuation mark goes there.
Underlining or Italics?
When reports were written on typewriters, the names of publications were underlined since most typewriters had not a way to print italics. You should still underline the names of publications if you write a bibliography by hand. But, if you use a computer, then publication names should be in italics since they are below. Always check with your instructor regarding their preference of utilizing italics or underlining. Our examples use italics.
All APA citations should use hanging indents, this is certainly, the initial type of an entry should be flush left, and also the second and subsequent lines should always be indented 1/2″.
Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Punctuation
The APA guidelines specify using capitalization that is sentence-style the titles of books or articles, so you should capitalize just the first word of a title and subtitle. The exceptions to this rule would be periodical titles and proper names in a title which should nevertheless be capitalized. The title that is periodical run in title case, and it is followed by the amount number which, because of the title, can also be italicized.
If there is one or more author, use an ampersand (&) prior to the name of the last author. If there are many than six authors, list only the first one and use et al. for the others.
Position the date of publication in parentheses just after the name of the author. Place a period of time after the closing parenthesis. Usually do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works within longer works.
Allen, T. (1974). Vanishing wildlife of North America. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.
Boorstin, D. (1992). The creators: a history of the heroes of this imagination. New York: Random House.
Nicol, A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: a guide that is practical creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Searles, B., & Last, M. (1979). A reader’s guide to science fiction. New York: Facts on File, Inc.
Toomer, J. (1988). Cane. Ed. Darwin T. Turner. New York: Norton.
Encyclopedia & Dictionary
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In the encyclopedia that is new (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
Pettingill, O. S., Jr. (1980). Falcon and Falconry. World book encyclopedia. (pp. 150-155). Chicago: World Book.
Tobias, R. (1991). Thurber, James. Encyclopedia americana. (p. 600). New York: Scholastic Library Publishing.
Magazine & Newspaper Articles
Format: Author’s last name, first initial. (Publication date). Article title. Periodical title, volume number(issue number if available), inclusive pages.
Note: usually do not enclose the title in quotation marks. Put a period of time following the title. Then supply the page range (in regular type) without “pp. if a periodical includes a volume number, italicize it and” If the periodical does not use volume numbers, as with newspapers, use p. or pp. for page numbers. Note: Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style.
Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, 9) april. Making the grade in the current schools. Time, 135, 28-31.
Kalette, D. (1986, July 21). California town counts town to quake that is big. USA Today, 9, p. A1.
Kanfer, S. (1986, 21) july. Heard any good books lately? Time, 113, 71-72.
Trillin, C. (1993, February 15). Culture shopping. New Yorker, pp. 48-51.
Website or Webpage
Online document: Author’s name. (Date of publication). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from full URL
Note: When citing Internet sources, relate to the precise website document. If a document is undated, use “n.d.” (for no date) soon after the document title. Break a URL that is lengthy would go to another line after a slash or before a period. Continually look at your references to online documents. There is absolutely no period following a URL. Note: if you fail to find a few of this given information, cite what is present.
Devitt, T. (2001, 2) august. Lightning injures four at music festival. The Why? Files. Retrieved January 23, 2002, from http://whyfiles.org/137lightning/index.html
Dove, R. (1998). Lady freedom in our midst. The Electronic Text Center. Retrieved 19, 1998, from Alderman Library, University of Virginia website: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/subjects/afam.html june
Note: If a document is contained within a large and website that is complexsuch as that for a university or a government agency), identify the host organization additionally the relevant program or department before giving the URL for the document itself. Precede the URL with a colon.